What is an atom structure
It’s a light colored center and surrounding layers of black seeds situated inside the fruit flesh.
If we compare an atom with a Kiwi fruit, then the concentrated center portion can be contrasted to the positively charged atomic nucleus and the black shade seeds into the negatively charged electrons. As we all know, atom is the smallest particle of an element and not one is able to observe the motion of the electrons with naked eye. The nucleus has two kinds of sub atomic particles, the positively charged protons and the neutral neutrons The aforementioned notion of a mature nucleus and obedient electrons which maintain a regular and ordinary path was suggested by the Danish scientist Niels Bohr.
But do you believe, the passive and obedient electrons and quiet nucleus can create the radioactivity? They’ll live together happily thereafter, do not they? But the fact is the enormous energy of radio activity. The powerful alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, X rays and moving quarks and neutrinos will be the reality. What leads these invincible phenomena? When Bohr’s atomic arrangement couldn’t explain these phenomena, scientists came up with different ideas including electrons moving in same circular orbits but in various directions. One of them Louis De Broglie borrowed Einstein’s wave theory of light and clarified that a variety of matter such as protons, electrons, atoms, molecules show double character like light. P Broigle,by using Maxwell’s electro-magnetic wave concept invented the idea of matter waves. Matter waves are waves related to moving microscopic particles.
Let’s return to the Kiwi fruit to comprehend the idea. In the picture, you have to have noticed the tender flesh spread round the seeds. Imagine, these tender layers are path of these seeds which goes in and around and the tender layers are formed due to the movement of these seeds. Similar is true for the path of electrons around the nucleus. Orbitals are regions in space around the nucleus where electrons are most likely to be found.
Now, let us understand why scientists were concerned about the structure of atom concerning radioactivity. Radioactivity is the emission of particles or radiation due to the disintegration of atomic nucleus. Beta particles are negatively charged and is created by the nucleus through its disintegration process, whereas gamma rays are impartial radiation. If the Bohr Atom version was right, an atom always will have a stable nucleus with same number of protons endured by same number of electrons moving around it in a desired velocity.
The disintegration of nucleus signaled the potential for charge difference and rising tension inside the nucleus. The principal reason might be the mismatch at the charge which directed the discovery of wave theory of sub atomic particles. This notion led Werner Karl Heisenberg to formulate a principle regarding the positioning of electrons inside the atomic orbitals termed Hesenberg’s uncertainty principle. Heisenberg said that”It is impossible to determine simultaneously and exactly both the momentum and position of a microscopic moving particle such as electron, proton etc.” According to the uncertainty principle, because of the wave nature of electron, we can’t describe the specific route i.e., position followed by an electron at any given moment. Thus Bohr’s theory, based on which electrons are considered as having fixed position of certain energy, is no longer accurate.
How does this influence the human beings if we feel that Bohr Model of atom is the right model and shut all of the additional research based on wave theory? If the scientists didn’t explore the truth behind the nuclear arrangement,
1. We would never have managed to treat cancer patients
Gamma rays are utilized to kill cancer cells and can be used for cancer therapy. The atom of this element Cobalt-60 is usually employed for this purpose. Utilizing radiation to fight cancer is a significant career. With the increasing rate of cancer cases in the world, a degree in radiation treatment reckons a good deal of opportunities.
2. Killing Microbes
Surgical instruments and syringes are also treated with gamma rays. It’s a excellent way to prevent infections been moved.
3. Carbon Dating
However, its carbon-14 content continues to rust. If we compare the carbon-14 with this from a living thing, the era of plant and animal remains can be computed. This is referred to as carbon dating. Carbon dating is used in the analysis of fossils. It’s Also a great career that has opportunities in the areas of archaeology, paleontology etc,
1.2% of the rest of the potassium atoms is radioactive, called K-40. By distributing the argon content of potassium stones, scientists can figure out the age of such stones. Therefore, it’s a excellent support for geologists and geographers.